Canine allergic disease (atopy) often presents as a skin disease, or canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Atopy can be defined as an inherited predisposition to develop hypersensitivity to substances present in indoor and outdoor environments, resulting in reactions such as eczema (atopic dermatitis), chronic hives, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Pruritic dermatitis (itchy skin) caused by pet allergies are among the most difficult and frustrating problems encountered in veterinary medicine today.
Solving these dermatology cases and establishing an effective dog allergy treatment plan can be challenging. Several dermatological disorders exhibit clinical signs similar to allergic dermatitis and must be ruled out before a diagnosis of allergy can be made.
KEY FACTS TO KNOW ABOUT DOG ALLERGIES
- Allergies are generally a lifelong disease requiring continuous, hands-on management
- No single treatment for allergic dermatitis is perfect and often several modalities such as medications, shampoos etc are needed to help a pet
- There will be some amount of expense involved in managing an allergy pet throughout its life
- All dogs with allergies have occasional flare-ups which will require a visit to the vet
- Dogs with allergies are at increased risk of bacterial and/or yeast infections
Dog Allergy Symptoms
While not usually life threatening, allergies in dogs do cause discomfort. Most symptoms are associated with skin problems but some can also lead to gastrointestinal or breathing issues in some dogs. Sometimes an owner will bring their dog to a veterinary appointment, suspecting a serious medical condition and end up finding out that their canine companion has an allergy.
Here are some allergy symptoms commonly found in dogs:
- Excessive licking
- Compulsive scratching or rubbing
- Periodic chewing on the same or different body parts or areas
- Regularly rubbing body or body parts against the ground, walls, furniture, etc.
- Frequent sneezing and/or wheezing
- Skin irritation
- Odor coming from the skin or ears
- Inflamed or uncomfortable ears
- Runny eyes or nose
- Hair loss
- Red itchy bumps
- Frequent shaking of the head
- Diarrhea and vomiting
Most environmental allergies develop in the second year of life for dogs. During the first year, a dog will be exposed to many types of allergens primarily through contact with the skin. A smaller number of allergies may be caused by food (usually the protein source) and inhalant (things they breathe in that are in the air). In the second year of life, the dog's immune system will overreact to the antigen(s) causing release of immune cells which release inflammatory substances ( such as histamine) which lead to symptoms of itching. Rarely is a dog allergic to just one thing. Most allergic dogs are born with a less than optimal skin barrier which allows for antigens to enter the skin more easily. Dogs that suffer from allergies have abnormal skin and a less than optimal immune response which allows for secondary infections to occur. Typically, dogs do not suffer from a single allergy, but instead, dogs with sensitivities to allergens have many sensitivities. You must understand that dog allergies are due to a complex set of issues that tends to change as the dog's environment changes.
Because these symptoms can have several possible causes, we recommend making an appointment immediately to speak with one of our veterinarians if you notice your dog exhibiting any of the above symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment of dog allergies not only increases the likelihood of your dog's treatment being successful, but can also be less expensive than delaying treatment. The longer you wait, the more your dog suffers and more severe the secondary infections can become.
A food allergy is the most likely cause of allergic symptoms in animals under 1 year of age.
Food allergy symptoms can manifest in your pet as:
- Ear Infection or inflammation
- Excessive feet licking
- Generalized to severe itching
- Vomiting and diarrhea in some cases.
Other clues your pet may be suffering from food allergies include year-round symptoms and poor responses to steroids. Food-induced allergic hypersensitivity cannot be treated by immunotherapy, therefore, avoidance and elimination diets are the only form of treatment for your pet’s food allergy. If your pet test positive to specific foods, then we will provide your veterinarian with a list of commercial diets free of those ingredients to which your pet has tested positive.
DOG BREEDS WITH A PREDISPOSITION FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS:
- American Bulldog
- Boston Terrier
- Bull Terrier
- Cairn Terrier
- Chinese Shar-Pei
- Cocker Spaniel
- English Bulldog
- English Setter
- French Bulldog
- German Shepherd
- Golden Retriever
- Irish Setter
- Jack Russell Terrier
- Labrador Retriever
- Lhasa Apso
- Miniature Schnauzer
- Scottish Terrier
- Shih Tzu
- West Highland White Terrier
- Wirehaired Fox Terrier
- Yorkshire Terrier
What Causes A Dog To Develop Allergies?
Think of dogs skin like saran wrap. It covers and protects the dog. However, dogs with allergies are born with abnormal skin (like holes in the saran wrap). These abnormalities in the skin allow for the allergens, which are normal in all environments, to enter thru the skin layer and set off an allergic response which causes itching and redness. So, it is important to understand that dogs who suffer from contact allergies do not have normal skin. Additionally, these dogs do not have a healthy immune response.
In addition, this inflammation in the skin will change the health of the skin and allow for secondary invaders such as bacteria and yeast to enter the dog's system. In addition, many of these dogs have a less than optimal local immune response to these secondary invaders making them more susceptible to yeast and bacterial infections. Yeast and bacteria are always present in low numbers on every dog's skin. Unfortunately for dogs with allergies, their skin and immune response are inadequate to fight off these secondary invaders.
Dog Allergy Testing
The first step to determining the cause of your dog's symptoms is a thorough exam by a veterinarian. In addition to looking for external skin parasites such as fleas and mites, your veterinarian will want to do some diagnostics to help him/her determine what types of infections may be present. After diagnosing and treating for external parasites and infections, your veterinarian may discuss blood work and recommend allergy testing. There are many potential causes for allergies in your dog. Dog allergens fall into the following groups:
- Contact allergy - including many grasses and plants, dust mites and molds
- Flea allergies - many dogs are highly allergic to flea bites
- Food allergies - including different types of proteins
- Inhalant allergy - allergens that are inhaled
There Are Two Main Types Of Dog Allergy Testing
Blood Testing and Intradermal Skin Testing. Each type of canine allergy testing is different and has its benefits and drawbacks. However testing should come after examination for other potential causes and irritators, including:
- Fungal or yeast infections of the skin (common secondary invaders)
- Chronic bacterial infections (common secondary invaders)
A veterinarian might also order a 12 week hypoallergenic diet to rule out a food allergy. Food allergies are difficult to detect using either dog allergy testing method, and therefore should be determined through dietary manipulation. Once all of these possibilities are ruled out, the veterinarian will order either a blood or skin test to determine the presence of dog allergies.
Blood Allergy Testing
Blood allergy testing is the most common form of allergy testing because it is convenient and easy to do. To perform a blood allergy test, a small sample of the patient's blood is drawn and analyzed. It is then tested for a reaction to a vast array of geographically appropriate allergens, including:
Blood allergy tests can also determine food allergies, as well as allergic reactions to materials like cotton or nylon. Blood tests are much less invasive and time consuming than skin allergy tests. Blood tests are the most commonly used dog allergy test.
What are the advantages of serum (blood) allergy testing?
- Unlike other allergy tests, your pet can stay on steroids.
- No shaving or sedation is required of your pet.
- With the food test you will receive a list of recommended diets specific to your pet’s needs.
- An individualized immuno-therapy treatment can be created based upon your pet’s allergy results.
- In the long run, you will have a happier and healthier pet!
Skin Allergy Testing
Skin allergy testing for dogs is another form of allergy testing used by veterinarians and veterinary dermatologists today. Skin allergy testing is more invasive than blood allergy testing, because it requires sedation due to the length of time the patient needs to be still. To perform skin allergy testing for dogs:
- The patient is sedated
- The patient is placed on its side
- A small area on the patient's side is shaved
- Small needles inject tiny amounts of each test allergen just under the patient's skin in a specific pattern and order so that if the dog shows a small raised reaction, the allergen causing it can be identified
After a period of time (usually a few hours), the shaved area is examined to determine which allergens elicited a reaction. Based on what the pattern indicates, a veterinarian and/or veterinary dermatologist can prescribe the most effective treatment protocol. Skin allergy testing for dogs has been estimated to be upwards of 75% accurate in determining the presence of dog allergies. However, skin allergy tests can be inaccurate if patients have received antihistamines or steroids in the months leading up to testing. Your veterinarian can help determine if skin allergy testing is appropriate and will yield accurate results for your canine friend.
Treating allergies in Dogs
It is helpful to understand that allergies cannot be cured but can be successfully treated. There are many types of treatment and include the combination of oral medication, bathing, topical therapy and even injectable antigen therapy.
Prescribing the correct allergy medicine for dogs depends largely on the symptoms that the dog is displaying, the severity of the symptoms, and preexisting medical conditions. Allergy medicine for dogs may involve one or more of the following types of therapies:
- Anti-inflammatory therapy: Treats dog allergies with anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids, or with antihistamines that quickly block the allergic reaction in most cases.
- Immune modulators: These modify and reduce the dog's immune response to reduce the amount of itching which occurs from exposure to the antigens
- Food and Dietary supplements: These include the use of protein select diets and supplementation of fatty acids. Some dogs have allergies just to food and some may also have a food allergy and/or contact allergies. The use of Omega three fatty acids can help improve the patient's response to steroids and antihistamines in some cases
- Antipruritic therapy (anti itch): These include antihistamines, corticosteroids and a new medication known as Apoquel which specifically targets the itch response by blocking the substances in the body which cause itch
- Shampoo therapy: Bathing can be very helpful to remove the antigens the dog has been exposed to and also to remove dead skin cells and help treat secondary infections such as yeast and bacteria. Some therapeutic shampoos contain anti-inflammatory ingredients that may further benefit your dog
- Hyposensitization therapy: If the specific offending allergens are identified by allergy testing, allergy shots can be given to the patient. This form of allergy medicine for dogs consists of weekly injections of very small amounts of an antigen. Repeated dosing helps reprogram or desensitize the patient's immune system. Approximately 50% of treated dogs will see significant improvement in their clinical signs, while approximately 25% more will see a decrease in the amount or frequency of anti-inflammatory therapy
To learn which allergy medicine and what dog allergy treatment methods will work best for your canine friend, schedule an appointment with your veterinarian today. Every allergy case is different and must all be approached on a case by case basis.
Choosing The Best Dog Food For Allergies
Some dogs suffer from food allergies. The only way to determine food allergies is to do an elimination diet in which we change your dog's diet to a limited list of ingredients that contain no known allergens. These can be home cooked or commercial diets (prescription) specifically made for food allergic dogs.
We can help determine whether or not your dog has a food allergy by prescribing three possible diets:
- Limited ingredient diet: We limit the ingredients of your dog's diet to pin down the specific allergen causing your dog's reactions
- Novel ingredient diet: We introduce ingredients your dog has not been exposed to and is therefore less likely to be causing the reactions
- Prescription diet: We prescribe a kibble-based or ingredient specific diet that is designed to contain hypoallergenic ingredients
- Home cooked dog recipes
It is important to remember that only about 10% of all dog allergies are food-based. Also, it is important to designate between dog food, environmental and flea allergies.
Contact us to schedule an allergy testing appointment and allow us to help your dog live a more comfortable life!